Bandonija

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Temos: istorija, muzika

bandoneonasPrieš tapdamas bandoneonu (lietuviškas šio instrumento pavadinimas – bandonija), šis instrumentas turėjo daugybę kitų pavadinimų. Jis buvo vadinamas mandolionu, bandolionu, mandoleonu ir bandoleonu. Kito ir mygtukų skaičius: nuo 32 pradžioje jų skaičius didėjo iki 42, 52, 65, kol pasiekė dabartinį lygį – 71 (38 mygtukai dešinei ir 33 kairei rankai).

BANDONIJOS istorijos ištakų beeiškant

Instrumentas, kuriuo iki šiol identifikuojamas tango, pateko į Río de la Platą, vykstant masinei imigracijai iš Europos. Tai buvo vokiečių “bandonion”, kuris Río de la Platoje buvo pavadintas bandoneón. Kiekvienas mitas apipinamas daugybe legendų. Todėl kaip šios neprilygstamo skambesio mažos dumplelės su daugybe mygtukų galėjo patekti į kitą pasaulio kraštą, taip ir liks amžina mįsle.

Muzikantui susiorientuoti 56, vėliau – 100, vėliausiai – 142 kone padrikai išdėstytuose tonuose buvo itin sudėtinga. Penkių oktavų mažoji dėželė kone prilygo tradicinio pianino garsų apimtį. Savo rankose bandonininkas tarytum laiko du instrumentus. Kairėje pusėje išdėstyti bosai ir žemesnieji garsai, kurių šiltas skambėjimas primena violončelę.

Dešiniosios pusės registre išgaunami nuostabūs aukšti tonai, kurie skamba panašiai kaip klarnetas ar smuikas. Didysis skambėjimo skirtumas tarp kairiojo ir dešiniojo registro išryškėja “viduryje”, kai abi pusės “susitinka” vienoje oktavoje. Šią, susidedančią iš dviejų skirtingų garso atspalvių, oktavą dažnai naudodavo Astoras Piazzolla. Jis melodijos liniją pradeda kairiąja ranka, ją pratęsia dešiniąja – ir sukuria iliuziją, neva laikytų savo rankose du instrumentus.

Alfred Arnold firmos bandonija, kuri anuomet buvo vadinama bandonionu.

Alfred Arnold firmos bandonija, kuri anuomet buvo vadinama bandonionu.

Skirtingai nuo daugelio akordeonų, bandonija yra diatonis instrumentas: tas pats mygtukas gali sukurti du visiškai skirtingus garsus. Vieną – kai dumplės traukiamos, ir kitą – kai jos suspaudžiamos. Ši diatonija įdomi ne vien muzikos teoretikams. Visų pirma ji yra svarbi patiems muzikantams. Tam, kad bandonija galėtum groti gamą, reikia atlikti keturis skirtingus veiksmus: dešinėje traukti, dešinėje spausti, kairėje traukti ir kairėje spausti. Tačiau bandonija, palyginus su akordeonu, turi esminį privalumą. Jeigu daugelis akordeono kairiosios pusės garsų susieti akordais, tai bandonininkas, kairiąja ranka galėdamas groti atskirus garsus, muzikuodamas turi daug daugiau laisvės.

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