Kaip atsirado tango

Autorius: | Komentarai 38 Komentarai »
Temos: istorija

Mūsuose tango asocijuojasi su klišėmis, dažniausiai – tango šou, kuriuos patys argentiniečiai vadina “Tango for Export”: juodais frakais apsirėdę savimylos vyrai stilizuotos aistros apimti skrieja su temperamentingomis moterimis per sceną, o nuskambėjus bandonijai ir smuikui, virtuoziškai susipina kūnais. Mums, europiečiams, kartais sunku išsilaisvinti iš pačių susikurto “nepadorios aistros” stereotipo ir atvirai pažvelgti į įdomią bei gyvą kultūrą.

Prastuomenės šokis

_1_moteris_ziuriTango juodinimas, pateikiant jį kaip “bordelio reptiliją” Argentinoje turi gilias tradicijas. Intelektualai bei literatai prakeikė tango kaip dekandentišką prastuomenės išraiškos formą. Enrique Larreta, Argentinos ambasadorius Paryžiuje, negalėdamas suvokti savo šalies šokio populiarumo Europoje, 1914 m. diktavo anglų žurnalistui, kuris bloknote pasižymėjo: “Tango Buenos Airėse šokamas tik prasčiausios reputacijos namuose bei šlykščiausiose tavernose. Jis niekuomet nešokamas padoriuose salonuose arba aukštuomenės draugijoje. Argentiniečio ausims tango muzika sukelia tikrai nemalonius vaizdinius”. Ezequielis Martínezas Estrada dar 1933 m. apibūdino tango kaip “neišraiškingą, monotonišką šokį stilizuotu lytinio santykiavimo ritmu. Tango yra bedvasis, skirtas bukiems automatams, vengiantiems dvasinio gyvenimo komplikacijų. Tango tekstai – apdujusios išgąstingų spazmų dejonės”. Leopoldo Lugones (tas pats, kuris tango pakrikštijo “bordelio reptilija”), Buenos Airių priemiesčius pavadino “pragaro židiniu”. Didėjantys priemiesčiai, arba arrabal* , juosiantys Buenos Airių centrą, vienijo blogiausia, ką savyje galėjo turėti didmiesčio civilizacija bei laukinė pampa**. Nepamirškime, kad žmonės, – arrabal gyventojai, – buvo čionai pakviesti: kvietimas Europos emigrantams nuskambėjo dar devynioliktojo amžiaus penkiasdešimtaisiais metais.

arrabal* Priemiestis, miesto pakraštys. Tačiau sąvokos arrabal ir suburbio Argentinoje reiškia ne geografinę vietą, bet daugiau socialinį reiškinį. “Arrabal” visuomet buvo ten, kur gyveno labiausiai ekonomiškai ir politiškai pažeidžiami žmonės iš žemiausių socialinių sluoksnių, visiškai nepriklausomai nuo to, kaip toli vienas ar kitas miesto rajonas buvo nutolęs nuo miesto centro.
pampa** Dykynė Argentinoje, kurią galima palyginti su Šiaurės Amerikos prerijomis. Tango tekstuose pampa vaizduojama kaip gaucho tėvynė, laisvės arba prarastos tėvynės, jos ilgesio simbolis.

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